pg_hba.conf

pg_hba.conf 為 PostgreSQL 對 Client 的認證組態文檔.

在初次安裝 PostgreSQL 時, 因其強調安全性, 預設情況下 PostgreSQL 是不允許非 localhost 進行連線使用的. 若想開放給使用者透過 TCP/IP 來進行連線, 至少需要下列的動作, (由於 PostgreSQL 的安全嚴謹性, 相對的使初學者在這部份就受到打擊 ...)
  1. SQL: 對指定的 ROLE 給於 LOGIN
  2. 修改 postgresql.conf 的選項
  3. 調整適當的認證權限在 pg_hba.conf

預設存取權(Privileges)

在 PostgreSQL 中增加"允許遠端"連線(LOGIN)的直接使用者角色(Role)時(建議盡可能不要), 別忘了修改 pg_hba.conf (Clinet認證組態檔)來放行.


/etc/postgresql/8.3/main/pg_hba.conf

# PostgreSQL Client Authentication Configuration File
# ===================================================
#
# Refer to the "Client Authentication" section in the
# PostgreSQL documentation for a complete description
# of this file.  A short synopsis follows.
#
# This file controls: which hosts are allowed to connect, how clients
# are authenticated, which PostgreSQL user names they can use, which
# databases they can access.  Records take one of these forms:
#
# local      DATABASE  USER  METHOD  [OPTION]
# host       DATABASE  USER  CIDR-ADDRESS  METHOD  [OPTION]
# hostssl    DATABASE  USER  CIDR-ADDRESS  METHOD  [OPTION]
# hostnossl  DATABASE  USER  CIDR-ADDRESS  METHOD  [OPTION]
#
# (The uppercase items must be replaced by actual values.)
#
# The first field is the connection type: "local" is a Unix-domain socket,
# "host" is either a plain or SSL-encrypted TCP/IP socket, "hostssl" is an
# SSL-encrypted TCP/IP socket, and "hostnossl" is a plain TCP/IP socket.
#
# DATABASE can be "all", "sameuser", "samerole", a database name, or
# a comma-separated list thereof.
#
# USER can be "all", a user name, a group name prefixed with "+", or
# a comma-separated list thereof.  In both the DATABASE and USER fields
# you can also write a file name prefixed with "@" to include names from
# a separate file.
#
# CIDR-ADDRESS specifies the set of hosts the record matches.
# It is made up of an IP address and a CIDR mask that is an integer
# (between 0 and 32 (IPv4) or 128 (IPv6) inclusive) that specifies
# the number of significant bits in the mask.  Alternatively, you can write
# an IP address and netmask in separate columns to specify the set of hosts.
#
# METHOD can be "trust", "reject", "md5", "crypt", "password", "gss", "sspi",
# "krb5", "ident", "pam" or "ldap".  Note that "password" sends passwords
# in clear text; "md5" is preferred since it sends encrypted passwords.
#
# OPTION is the ident map or the name of the PAM service, depending on METHOD.
#
# Database and user names containing spaces, commas, quotes and other special
# characters must be quoted. Quoting one of the keywords "all", "sameuser" or
# "samerole" makes the name lose its special character, and just match a
# database or username with that name.
#
# This file is read on server startup and when the postmaster receives
# a SIGHUP signal.  If you edit the file on a running system, you have
# to SIGHUP the postmaster for the changes to take effect.  You can use
# "pg_ctl reload" to do that.

# Put your actual configuration here
# ----------------------------------
#
# If you want to allow non-local connections, you need to add more
# "host" records. In that case you will also need to make PostgreSQL listen
# on a non-local interface via the listen_addresses configuration parameter,
# or via the -i or -h command line switches.
#




# DO NOT DISABLE!
# If you change this first entry you will need to make sure that the
# database
# super user can access the database using some other method.
# Noninteractive
# access to all databases is required during automatic maintenance
# (custom daily cronjobs, replication, and similar tasks).
#
# Database administrative login by UNIX sockets
local   all         postgres                          ident sameuser

# TYPE  DATABASE    USER        CIDR-ADDRESS          METHOD

# "local" is for Unix domain socket connections only
local   all         all                               ident sameuser
# IPv4 local connections:
host    all         all         127.0.0.1/32          md5
host    all         chaoyi        0.0.0.0/0          md5
# IPv6 local connections:
host    all         all         ::1/128               md5
root@powersale:~#

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